The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. According to William Cleveland and Martin Bunton, the establishment of Isfahan as the Great capital of Persia and the material splendor of the city attracted intellecutal’s from all corners of the world, which contributed to the cities rich cultural life. Hypocrisy is the usual disguise in which they proceed. Safavid and Ottoman Empire’s always had a fierce tension with each other, and not always politically. By 1595, Allahverdi Khan, a Georgian, became one of the most powerful men in the Safavid state, when he was appointed the Governor-General of Fars, one of the richest provinces in Persia. , Horses were the most important of all the domestic animals, and the best were brought in from Arabia and Central-Asia. They particularly established monopoly of the spice trade between the East Indies and Iran. Economically robust and politically stable, this period saw a flourishing growth of theological sciences. , In 16th and 17th century Iran, there existed a considerable number of local democratic institutions. After the decline of the Timurid Empire (1370–1506), Persia was politically splintered, giving rise to a number of religious movements. By choosing the central city of Isfahan, fertilized by the Zāyande roud (“The life-giving river“), lying as an oasis of intense cultivation in the midst of a vast area of arid landscape, he both distanced his capital from any future assaults by the Ottomans and the Uzbeks, and at the same time gained more control over the Persian Gulf, which had recently become an important trading route for the Dutch and British East India Companies.. And the Naqsh-e Jahan Square (“Examplar of the World“). The epic Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”), a stellar example of manuscript illumination and calligraphy, was made during Shah Tahmasp’s reign. The low morale within the military, and the decentralized structure of the government, with much power in the hands of local governors, eventually led to 10 years of civil war. It rejected the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts and believed that only the Quran, hadith, (prophetic sayings and recorded opinions of the Imams) and consensus should be used as sources to derive verdicts (fatāwā). Social classes, appointing each class a role. Immediately after Nadir Shah’s assassination in 1747, the Safavids were re-appointed as shahs of Iran in order to lend legitimacy to the nascent Zand dynasty.  For his part, Abbas declared that he “preferred the dust from the shoe soles of the lowest Christian to the highest Ottoman personage.”, In 1599, Abbas sent his first diplomatic mission to Europe. , Nevertheless, the Persian society during the Safavids was that of a hierarchy, with the Shah at the apex of the hierarchical pyramid, the common people, merchants and peasants at the base, and the aristocrats in between. Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. Ismail I, brought in mainstream Ithnā‘ashariyyah Shi’a religious leaders and granted them land and money in return for loyalty. Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imam Mosque (Masjid-e Imami) the Lutfallah Mosque and the Royal Palace. Following his conquest of Iran, Ismail I made conversion mandatory for the largely Sunni population. Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Women with slender waists were regarded as more attractive than those with larger figures. A very strenuous form of exercise which the Persians greatly enjoyed was hunting.  According to Professor Roger Savory:. SURVEY . Key Terms .  According to contemporary historians, though, the landlord always had the worst of the bargain with the peasant in the crop-sharing agreements. According to. Abbas moved the capital to Isfahan, deeper into central Iran. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to Kurdish dignitary, Firuz Shah Zarin-Kulah. Chardin described one such event:, As well as wrestling, what gathered the masses was fencing, tightrope dancers, puppet-players and acrobats, performing in large squares, such as the Royal square. 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