Eradication efforts in the United States between 1997 and 2010 cost more than $373 million. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. This beetle is in the family Cerambycidae and is originally from China and the Koreas. The Asian longhorned beetle is native to China and the Korean peninsula. What Are Their Characteristics? Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ArthropodaClass - InsectaOrder - ColeopteraFamily - CerambycidaeGenus - AnoplophoraSpecies - A. glabripennis. Asian Longhorned Beetle. Usually, identification of this pest is made by observing damage to the host trees, and then finding an adult beetle to confirm the suspected infestation. Areas where host trees are available, particularly where maples, elms, and ash are in abundance. Asian longhorned beetle larvae and adults chew wood with large mandibles. The Asian Longhorned Beetle belongs to the family of wood boring beetles, Cerambycidae. The glossy black adults are large, 17–40 mm (0.7–1.6 inches) in length, and have 10–20 white or yellow-orange irregular spots on their smooth elytra (wing covers). Egg sites – Adult female beetles chew up to 90 oval depressions, called oviposition sites or egg sites, into the bark of the host tree. In 1992 the Asian longhorned beetle was first detected at ports of entry on the east coasts of both the United States and Canada, but it was exterminated before it could escape into the surrounding habitats. The Asian Longhorned Beetle is a recently introduced non-native insect. All four stages of the life cycle damage the host trees. Corrections? Visible Asian longhorned beetles. The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) is a large, striking insect that is black with white spots, 1 to 1 ½” long, has long black and white striped antennae and bluish feet. This insect pest poses a serious risk to trees and forests. Identifying Characteristics: Large 1” – 1 ½” long body. These look like little wounds on the tree, and you can sometimes see the chew marks on the edges. All other stages of the life cycle occur within the host tree, so it's not likely you will see them. The antennae are quite striking with bands of black and gray. Given the inherent risks involved in introducing yet another foreign species, the natural enemies are still being researched to determine their suitability for biological control. In an attempt to reduce the spread of the pest, citizens in many areas are urged to report infestations or sightings of the beetle and are warned not to transport firewood or other potentially contaminated wood items. 4… That population increase and westward movement followed the large-scale planting of poplar trees that began in the 1960s and culminated as part of China’s Three-North Shelterbelt Programme, initiated in 1978. Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) was first discovered in North America at several ports in the early 1990's. Debbie Hadley is a science educator with 25 years of experience who has written on science topics for over a decade. In rare instances the beetle has been found in shipments of live plants. Larvae, which are also white and resemble small grubs, chew their way through the vascular tissue of the tree and move into the wood. Given their low numbers and the limited availability of host trees at the forest edge, the beetles do not significantly damage trees in their native environment. The tarsi may have a faint iridescent blue color. In China the beetle’s native range was in the eastern portion of the country until the mid-1980s, when it was first reported in high numbers in western China and began killing significant numbers of trees. Larvae feed on the phloem tissue and wood; adults feed on bark during their mating and egg-laying period. Adult beetles feed on foliage for a few weeks, female beetles then chew grooves into the bark to lay single eggs that hatch within two weeks. Other management strategies being examined for the Asian longhorned beetle include studies to locate natural enemies that can manage the pest as a form of biological control. The program’s goal was to plant a 4,506-km- (2,800-mile-) long shelterbelt of trees in the northwest regions by 2050 to prevent soil erosion, slow desertification, enhance urban beautification, and increase pulpwood production. This feeding effectively cuts off the tree's food supply and starves it to the point of death. Larvae may reach 5 cm in length when fully grown, feeding for at least 3 months.Pupa - At maturity, the larvae move near the surface of the tree (under the bark) to pupate. The base of each segment is pale blue-white, grading distally (away from the centre of the body) to black. Introduction, 1 of 3 Introduction; Completion Form, 2 of 3 Completion Form; Quiz, 3 of 3 Quiz; Credits, 3 of 3 Credits. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Shiny black outer wings with around 20 white spots. The Asian longhorned beetle can develop in at least 15 tree genera, its preferred hosts being species of poplar, maple, willow, and elm. Accidental introductions, probably in wooden packing crates from China, led to infestations in New York and Chicago in the 1990's. The Asian longhorned beetle’s life cycle mostly occurs under the host tree’s bark, so homeowners will not see the egg, larva, or pupal stage. Professor of Entomology, Clemson University, South Carolina. A recent immigrant to the United States, the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) made its presence known quickly. Adult beetles are typically 1.7 to 3.9 cm in length with long antennae 1.3 (females) to 2.5 times body length (males). More recently, Anoplophora glabripennis appeared in New Jersey and Toronto, Canada. The elytra is black with 20 irregular white spots. The Asian Longhorned Beetle belongs to the family of wood boring beetles, Cerambycidae. Adult females have a life span of about 66 days, during which they can lay between 50 and 125 individual eggs, depending on their geographic strain, the host trees available, and exposure to pathogens in the environment. Starry sky beetle, Asian cerambycid beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle is a black insect with white speckles that grows a long antenna. 4. Typical signs of infestation include round or slightly oval emergence holes 6 - 9 mm (0.24 - 0.35 in. Asian Longhorned Beetles August is Tree Check Month, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is urging the public (and cabin owners) to inspect trees for signs of Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). However, once they have matured into adults, their presence becomes known since adult beetles exit infested host trees by chewing holes in the tree and emerging. Which beetle is also known as the tumblebug and can eat its weight in 24 hours? This accumulated sawdust, usually around the base of the tree or piled in the crotch of branches, is another sign of the Asian longhorned beetle. This beetle can infest and kill hardwood trees in more than 15 plant families. The beetle chews its way into hardwood trees to lay eggs. The Asian longhorned beetle . The Asian longhorned beetle's native range includes China and Korea. The egg hatches in 7 to 14 days. The Asian longhorned beetle can develop in at least 15 tree genera, its preferred hosts being species of poplar, maple, willow, and elm. Adults, especially males, display long antennae used to sense the sex pheromones of potential mates. ALB has not yet been found in New Hampshire. The pronotum has two large spines, while the elytra are shiny black and bear white or yellowish tan spots in variable patterns. Invasive Species - (Anoplophora glabripennis) Watch List - Prohibited in Michigan The Asian longhorned beetle can attack and kill many tree species including poplar, willow, sycamore, and horse chestnut, but its favorite host are maple trees. The feet and legs are decorated with a slate blue pubescence. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The beetle’s life cycle lasts one to two years. Native to China and Korea, the beetles are approximately 1.5 More than 110,000 trees have been removed since 1996 as part of the eradication programs in New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Ohio, and pesticides were applied on a large scale to susceptible species. In females the antennae are as long as the body, but they will be almost twice the body length in males. Adult beetles measure 1-1½ inches in length. A feeding larva excretes sawdustlike waste, which is pushed out through the tunnel opening. The Asian long-horned beetle is a large wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia. When the female oviposits, it causes the sap to weep. The Asian longhorned beetle may be mistaken for two species native to the U.S., the cottonwood borer and the whitespotted sawyer. The discovery in Worcester in 2008 led to a 110-square mile quarantine zone and about 36,000 trees being cut down. The larvae feed in tunnels in the wood of the tree branches and trunks, eventually killing the tree. Very long white and black striped antennae. ... Characteristics and Breeding. The adult beetles look very similar; they are very large black and white beetles that grow up to 37mm in length. Insect characteristics, 4 of 9 Insect characteristics; Color, 5 of 9 Color; Hosts, 6 of 9 Hosts; Reproduction, 7 of 9 Reproduction; Damage, 8 of 9 Damage; Similar species, 9 of 9 Similar species; Quiz, 2 of 3 Quiz. Their shiny black bodies have white spots or markings, and the long antennae have alternating black and white stripes. Antennae have contrasting black and white bands. Without eradication, this insect has the potential to be a significant threat to trees in the United States. characteristics (Liebhold and Tobin 2008). Adult beetles have bullet-shaped bodies from 3/4 inch to 1-1/2 inches long, shiny black with white spots and long striped antennae, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 times the size of its body. Their body is a shiny black with irregular white spots, while the antennae are banded with black and white. She lays a single egg beneath the bark at each site. Which of these insects includes a “slave-maker” that bites the head off the resident queen? As the adults chew their way out of the tree, they push large amounts of sawdust from their exit holes. The legless larva creates a feeding tunnel by chewing through the cambium (layer of actively dividing cells) into sapwood and heartwood. A journey through the early detection and rapid response to the introduction of the invasive Asian longhorned beetle in Canada. https://www.britannica.com/animal/Asian-long-horned-beetle, The Nature Conservancy - Asian Longhorned Beetle. Larval feeding is the primary cause of tree damage, as tunneling in the cambium disrupts vascular flow. Asian and citrus longhorn beetles both harm the trees they infest at all stages of their lifecycle. The introduced populations are believed to be under control. These antennae are the reason for their name, Asian Longhorned Beetle. This species has now been accidentally introduced into the United States, where it was first discovered in 1996, as well as Canada, and several countries in Europe, including Austria, France, Germany, Italy and UK. The Asian longhorned beetle is a large black beetle with white spots and unusually long antennae. The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has learned much about the Asian longhorned beetle under the leadership of its Great Lakes Forestry Centre(GLFC) scientists: 1. 1 and 2A and B, Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002). Help us by looking at the debris from your swimming pools. Around an infestation an eradication zone is created, in which all infested trees are removed and all uninfested host trees are treated with a systemic insecticide. When a tree has multiple wounds with dripping sap, wood borers may be suspected. These unique characteristics and colorings on the Asian longhorned beetle body is what distinguish them from other species that are closely related to them. 3. The long antennae each have 11 segments and are 1.5 (female) to 2 (male) times as long as the body. The Asian Longhorned Beetle, Its Prevention and Control, 22 Common Insects Pests That Are Harmful to Trees, Keep Bugs out of Your Firewood and Your Home, 10 Biggest Beetle Families in North America, Habits and Traits of Beetles, Order Coleoptera, Profile on Carpenter Bees (Genus Xylocopa), B.A., Political Science, Rutgers University. Its life cycle (from egg to emerging adult) lasts from one to three years. The natural enemies include fungi and nematodes as well as insect predators and parasitoids. Asian longhorned beetle adult next to a penny in a person’s hand. Six legs. 2001).Of particular concern is the impact that A. glabripennis feeding damage may have on Acer spp. 2. Their shiny black bodies have white spots or markings, and the long antennae have alternating black and white stripes. Subsequent populations have been reported in New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio, and Massachusetts, though the infestations in both Illinois and New Jersey have since been eradicated. The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) was found in Worcester, MA in August 2008 and in Boston in July 2010. If you find a beetle, try to take a picture or capture it by placing the insect in a jar and freezing it for identification. Asian longhorned beetle, (Anoplophora glabripennis), also spelled Asian long-horned beetle, also called starry sky beetle, species of beetle (order Coleoptera, family Cerambycidae), originally native to eastern China and Korea, that became a serious pest of hardwood trees in North America and parts of Eurasia. It is estimated that 90% of the longhorned beetle larvae mature below ground. Most incidents of invasion go undetected for a few to many generations, and the source population and history of an invasion must often be inferred indi-rectly. Test what you know about bugs with this quiz. ), piles of sawdust and excrement ( frass ), and oozing sap. Asian longhorned beetles undergo complete metamorphosis with four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. What does Asian and citrus longhorn beetle damage look like? Mated females chew a pit in the bark on the upper trunk or main branches of a host tree and deposit a single 6-mm- (0.2-inch-) long white egg under the bark. Asian longhorned beetle adults are large, 17–39 mm in length, and although females tend to be larger than males, there is considerable variation in size both within and between the sexes (Figs. Egg - Eggs are laid singly within the host tree's bark, and hatch in 1-2 weeks.Larva - Newly hatched larvae tunnel into the vascular tissue of the tree. Adults are active from April or May through October. Older f… The backside of an Asian longhorned beetle (. Adult beetles measure 1-1½ inches in length. Established populations have also been reported in Japan, Austria, France, Germany, and Italy. Molecular markers are useful for characteriz- ... Genetic analyses of the Asian longhorned beetle * … They have black-and-white antennae that are as long as their bodies. The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), also known as the starry sky, sky beetle, or ALB, is native to eastern China, and Korea. Adults emerge in about 18 days.Adult - The adult beetles actively mate and lay eggs throughout the summer and fall. Thousands of trees were chipped and burned to prevent its spread. For more information, visit www.aphis.usda.gov or www.asianlonghornedbeetle.com, or call the toll free hotline: 1-866-702-9938. In areas beyond the eradication zone, potential host trees are regularly inspected for signs of infestation. The newly emerged adult chews its way out of the tree. ALB was detected in the Toronto, Ontario area in 2003 and quick action lead to eradication of the pest over the following years. The adult emerges by chewing to the surface and exiting through a 10–15-mm- (0.4–0.6-inch-) diameter hole. Pupation happens within the tunnels the larvae create in the wood. The eggs produce larvae and those larvae tunnel deep under the bark and feed on living tree tissue. Because the Asian longhorned beetle can inflict significant tree damage, all countries in which it has been accidentally introduced have established eradication protocols. Accidental introductions expanded the range to include the United States, Canada, and Austria, hopefully temporarily. What makes this beetle so dangerous to our trees? Report any signs or symptoms of an infestation immediately. Omissions? In trees that have been repeatedly infested, limbs or trunks often break under high winds or heavy snow, as numerous feeding tunnels weaken the tree. Infestations are considered eradicated only after no new infested trees are found following four to six years of inspections. The Asian longhorned beetle, or ALB, is an invasive wood-boring insect that feeds on a variety of hardwoods including maple, birch, elm, ash, poplar, horse chestnut and willow, among others. When fully developed, the larva is 30–50 mm (1.2–2 inches) long and pupates at the end of the feeding tunnel. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. Adult beetles emerge by chewing their way out of trunk and branches, leaving large round holes (6-14 mm in diameter). Asian longhorned beetle USDA Adult Asian longhorned beetles are less than 5 cm long and have a shiny black outer skeleton containing white spots. New adults feed on twigs or leaf veins and petioles (leaf stalks) for approximately two weeks before mating. Key diagnostic characteristics are the black body with white spots, black and white striped antennae, and blue feet. Asian longhorned beetles feed on wood of many common hardwood species: birches, common horsechestnuts, elms, hackberries, London planes, maples, mountain ashes, poplars, aspens, and willows. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Accumulation of coarse sawdust, also known as frass, around the base or on the branches of infested trees.this frass is created by the beetle larvae as they bore into the main tree stem and branches. The first established population outside Asia was found in New York City in 1996. This beetle is believed to have been spread from Asia in solid wood packaging material. The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an invasive xylophagous beetle that poses a threat to numerous urban and forest hardwood tree species in the United States ( Nowak et al. The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive insect pest that has established populations in Worcester County, Massachusetts as of 2008.ALB predominantly targets red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), which are prominent in New England hardwood forests, and Norway maple (Acer platanoides), which was planted in built environments as street trees … From Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda and its Class is Insecta Genes/species: Anoplophora glabripennis This beetle is about 1.5 inches long with bluish, white … Both sexes have 11-segmented antennae with an alternating white and black banding pattern. Male Female Adult Female: Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Habitat: This beetle is native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Isle of Hainan and an accidental immigrant in North America.Adults are drawn to recently felled, stressed, or apparently healthy hardwood trees. Larval feeding is the primary cause of tree damage, as tunneling in the cambium disrupts vascular flow. FIGURE 1. As they mature, larvae migrate into the wood, causing extensive damage. Adults locate host trees by using visual or chemical cues and detect mates by using both short-range and contact pheromones. In its native environment on the Korean peninsula, the Asian longhorned beetle occurs at low densities at the edge of mixed forest habitats. Transport of the Asian longhorned beetle to North America, Europe, and Japan occurred primarily in solid-wood packing materials (e.g., pallets and packing crates) containing developing larvae or pupae. In the U.S. and Canada, known Asian longhorned beetle infestations have occurred in urban areas. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. Asian Long-horned Beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle [Anoplophora glabripennis Motschul­ sky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)], a native of eastern Asia, poses a new threat to Arkansas’ forests (Figure 1). They can … Can have blue-ish feet. twice the body length and coloured black with white or light blue bands Citrus Long-horned Beetle Beetles most often seen in late summer The adult beetle emerges from an oval exit hole about the size of a pencil eraser. In rare instances the beetle has been found in shipments of live plants. Updates? Large, robust beetle ; Glossy black with irregular splotches of white on the wings. The female chews away a small amount of bark and lays white, oval eggs singly within the tree. The dramatic increase in host trees allowed the Asian longhorned beetle to become a serious pest in China. They show a particular preference for maples. Requires login ) males, display long antennae and nematodes as well as insect predators and.. 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